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The Conscientious Dimension and Historical Awareness

点击: 51 次  来源:http://www.sib-law.com 时间:2019-11-22

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In The Use and Abuse of History, Nietzsche writes, The truth is that, in the process by which the human being, in thinking, reflecting, comparing, separating, and combining, first limits that unhistorical elementonly then, through the power of using the past for living and making history again out of what has happened, does a person first become a person.

可能很多男性观众都会暗暗地羡慕陈连富,因为他雕塑了那么多美丽的身体。

In the same text, Nietzsche describes animals thusly: It does not know what yesterday or today is. It springs around, eats, rests, digests, jumps up again, and so from morning to night and from day to day, with its likes and dislikes closely tied to the peg of the moment.

陈连富虽然也做过许多金属焊接作品,也做过一些头像之类,但是最有代表性,也是最有成就的,应该是那些女人体。

It would appear that for Nietzsche, historical awareness is the fundamental difference between man and animal. Nietzsches view of history is based on the prerequisite that living requires the service of history. In terms of our relationships to history, Nietzsche sees three possible approaches, the monumental, the antiquarian and the critical.

一个男人喜欢女性的身体,特别是性感的,有魅力的身体,是最自然不过的事情了。在这一点上,它不是什么当下不当下的问题,而是一个永恒的问题。

I

《山之情》 178x52x49cm 2009

As a sculptor, and particularly as an elder sculptor with a conscience, Tian Shixin has a powerful awareness of history, an awareness that he needs to externalize and exchange with othersthis is artistic expression. Looking back across Tian Shixins career, we see many artworks with historical themes, such as sculptures of the historic figures Lao Tzu, Qu Yuan, Sima Qian, Yan Zhenqing, Lu Xun, Tan Sitong, Qiu Jin, Qi Baishi and the Han River Goddess. Some of these figures and themes, particularly Lao Tzu, Qu Yuan and Lu Xun, are ones to which he has returned time and again. Anyone familiar with these names will notice that this is a rather selective list, one marked by a particular sense of history. If we approach this list from Nietzsches three types of historical relationships, then these themes clearly belong in the categories of the monumental and the antiquarian. Meanwhile, in the aesthetic and sculptural artistic expressions from the above list, we find affirmation of the ways in which history belongs to the living person: It belongs to him as an active and striving person; it belongs to him as a person who preserves and reveres; it belongs to him as a suffering person in need of emancipation.

当下的男人关注女性的身体;过去的男人难道就不关注吗?何况,当下的女性同样也在关注自身的身体问题。只是,身体这件事情一直到现在,常常都是不能拿到桌面上来说的。

Tian Shixins historical sculptures reveal his unique talent for drawing on his unique historical perception (that intuitional grasp which is the exclusive purview of the artist) to express historical subjects and figures, a talent which is quite rare among sculptors of his generation. Though this is a sense or intuitional grasp of history marked by individual traits, todays viewer can find within these works an affinity for a certain aspect of history, as well as faithful images of said history. In these historical images, the artists grasp of history, aesthetic opinions and emotional judgments are fused together quite convincingly, and even though his works clearly bear the traits of our times and individual characteristics, these are expressions of a sense of history rather than a recreation of history, and this is what makes his work stand out above the rest.

女性的身体曾经是一种中国的禁忌。尽管古往今来,没有人在内心里成心要跟女性的身体过不去,除非有病但是,在光冕堂皇的言说中,在艺术的表现中,作为肉体的,感性的女人体,常常是被遮蔽的。

II

其实何止是中国呢!

The sculpture series The King is Tian Shixins most recent tour-de-force. In terms of subject matter and perspective, this is a rational extension of the sense of history found throughout his oeuvre, but in spirit and form, it marks a great leap, a revolutionary leap even. This leap has placed him firmly in the realm of the contemporary. The King brings together the monumental, antiquarian and critical approaches into a single body of work. Here, Tian Shixin has brought his art into the realm of grand structure and rich subject matter. The theme of this series is derived from Mao Zedongs famous poem Snow. This poem, which enjoyed particularly broad dissemination due to political factors, is said to have been written while Mao Zedong was on a plane to Chongqing to meet with his rival Chiang Kai-shek for peace talks. At the time, Mao was determined to defeat his rival and take control of China. The poem expresses Maos great ambitions through the medium of the great kings and emperors of history. This poem caused quite a stir among Chinese intellectuals when it was leaked during the peace talks. It attracted many admirers, but also fierce critics, who said it was evidence of Maos despotic intentions.

在人类的历史上,身体的历史是一部意味深长的大书。身体作为生命的本体和物质承载,作为工具和机器,作为语言和符号,它凝聚了太多的社会和历史内容。

Drawing from Maos poem, Tian Shixin created a series of sculptures depicting the great leaders of Chinese history with contemporary expressive methods, the six kings who had the most profound historical, spiritual and cultural impact on China. These figures are Emperor Qin Shihuang, the founder of the Qin dynasty, Emperor Wudi of the Han dynasty, Emperor Taizong of the Tang dynasty, Emperor Taizu of the Song dynasty, and Genghis Khan, all mentioned in Maos poem, as well as Mao Zedong himself.

在艺术的表现上,身体是遮蔽还是敞开?是鄙视还是膜拜?都是我们解读人类文化的一种方式。也就是说,不同的时代的身体观念和态度,不同时代的身体艺术和表现方式已经成为人们窥视人类文化的一个特殊角度,这就是发现身体。

In this poem, Mao stands from the heights of his own historical period, appearing to smear each of these great drivers of history. This attitude and approach belongs entirely to the writer, and lacks any historical basis. It is a poetic and aesthetic criticism. Of course, such criticism is quite enchanting, but when people approach these criticisms from the perspective of historical materialism and through the dimension of a history written by the victors, they miss the entire point of the poem, overlooking Maos psychological and spiritual motivations. Even today, in an age of abundant and transparent information, some adorable people still attempt to approach Maos poetry with the methods of yesteryearthis poeticism and aesthetic are enchanting indeed.

所以,在肉体上,在生理学意义上,喜欢女人的身体并不是一个当下的问题;但发现身体的重要性,将身体问题提升为一个文化问题,则毫无疑问地是一个当下的问题。

This brings us to a rethinking of the spiritual history of the twentieth century.

在这个意义上,陈连富将女性身体的表现作为他一贯的研究课题就不再是一个男人喜欢女人那么简单问题;也不再是从两性的意义上,对身体本身的关注,而是将身体问题提升为一个文化人类学的研究课题。

Some thinkers have incisively declared the twentieth century to be an era of extremes. Two world wars, the atomic bomb, radical revolutions, genocide, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, radical change in Eastern Europe, these drastic changes have elicited extreme imaginings and perceptions within mankind. Man is driven to fervor by powerful emotions in pursuit of the sublime, to the point that human sentiments and emotions have been raised to a level of high value and truth through aesthetic form. At this point, philosophical thinking, practical reality, historical truth and logical verification all cease to exist as art has finally transcended its own boundaries, entering into life and coming to shape and guide it.

关注和表现中国女人的身体,也就是发现中国,研究中国的一种特殊的文化方式。只有把陈连富的工作放在历史中,放在中国女性身体艺术的发展链条中,才可以充分地发现他的作品的意义。

Chinas decade-long Cultural Revolution is the most absolute embodiment of this situationthe eight model operas, songs written from the Quotations of Chairman Mao, Maos poetry and Lenin in 1918 came to form the aesthetic feast of this tumultuous decade in China.

前面说,女性身体曾经是中国的禁忌,这句话并不全对。也就是说,从雕塑的历史上看,女性的身体有自然袒露,被顶礼膜拜的历史;也有天真无邪,无所顾忌的历史。这些在中国的原始文化中,都有表露。

Tian Shixin perceived and experienced all of this, and welcomed the reform and opening that followed. In this process, his artistic creation entered into a period of great freedom. He also enjoyed the material benefits and creative conditions brought about by this era marked by the reform and opening, national unity and harmony. But as an artist with a human conscience and cultural character, the feelings of indignation towards suffering and unfairness that remained in his spirit continued to leave him unsettled about the state and meaning of contemporary existence. He saw the dangers hidden beneath the surface appearance of harmony and stability, and the moral and historical price that his people were paying for them. The mass of negative information flowing through reality also showed him that from the perspectives of social morality and spiritual cultural revival, from the expansion of humanism and freedom, from human dignity and value, this was not true stability and harmony. Such anxieties came to form the conscientious dimension of his art.

随着文明的发展,身体日益被遮盖以后,佛教艺术的传入,给了女性身体一次解放的机会。在魏晋南北朝时代,在唐代,那些半裸菩萨的妖冶身姿就是明证。

It was against this conceptual and spiritual backdrop that the sculpture series The King began to take form. This is perhaps a response to his own spirit, as well as an act of spiritual transcendence.

宋以后,女性身体又开始被严严实实地遮蔽起来。再后来身体的女性特征越来越模糊,越来越远离身体的真实形态,仅仅成为一种抽象的指代。

Through The King, Tian Shixin examined and reflected on history from the heights of modern politics and culture. The artists spirit and ideas are transcendent, and his language is understated and indirect, and yet, owing to the exhibition form, his intent is still clearly discernible. These artworks are actually an aesthetic rethinking of the deep rooted views on autocracy and legitimacy in Chinese culture. If one is to draw connections to the demons that exist within the Chinese psyche todaythe powerful collective unconscious dispensation towards obedience to autocracy, then the artists attempts to awaken the spirit of individuality and political freedom, the desire to join the global wave of democracy, to cast off the fetters of autocratic thinking so that the people of China can truly become the masters of this nation and its society, can be seen as a form of aesthetic redemption rooted in his artistic conscience.

这种情形随着古典中国向现代性中国发生转变而产生了变化。

III

从二十世纪开始,一种西方式的雕塑传入中国,伴随这个过程的,是一种与西方传统密切相关的人体塑造的题材和语言方式。

Tian Shixin is a mature sculptor with a clear style, but he is not a formalist. In his art, formal language is always propped up by the flow of emotions and spirit. In this regard, he has always been lauded by his peers and art critics. This series and its exhibition mark a transition in the artists spiritual approach, a spiritual leap towards contemporary concepts. In terms of schemas and visual language, the artist has adopted the classical line depictions of ancient Chinese art and used lacquerware painting techniques to transform it into a contemporary conceptual language of sculpture. This is a logical development of the artists lifelong pursuit of Eastern artistic traits, but within these works, we can also see new results of linguistic expressionthe translation and recreation of classical schemaswhich is clearly the realm of the postmodern or the contemporary.

在二十世纪前期的人体教学中,我们从当时的女人体雕塑中,能感到明显的西方女人体和东方女人体相混合特点。也就是说,由于刚开始引进,古老而封闭的中国缺乏对人体美的研究,早期的人体作品还有概念化的问题,因为它们还没有来得及真正展开对中国女性人体的研究。

仅仅只是开了一个头,很快就被搁置了。战争,革命,救亡,压倒了对女人体的关注。尔后,一种新女性身体语言开始取代中西合璧式的女人体。这就是红色经典的身体模式。

1949年以后,女人体只是作为教学和基础训练而存在,将女人体直接作为作品来进行表现是不被提倡的,甚至是禁止的。

红色的身体模式一般都是着衣的,它的特点是神圣性、去肉身化;她要去掉的是任何与性感和妩媚相关的身体魅力,而保留一种向上的,激昂的,中性化的身体姿态。这种模式在文化大革命中发展到了高峰。

1979年以后,随着人的思想的解放,人的身体也逐步获得解放。女人体重新回到了艺术的殿堂。到了这个时候,似乎是到了应该好好研究一下人体的时候了。

遗憾的是,我们的脚步太快。新的艺术观念和思潮象风一样的掠过,艺术家为了证明自己没有落后,也耽心被淘汰,只好匆匆地追赶一趟趟时尚的列车。

身体又一次被忽略了。不过,这一次不是因为禁忌,而可能是因为太没有禁忌。

在陈连富稳住精神,依然以具象的方式,架上雕塑的方式,坚持研究女人体的时候;一种观念的,以身体作为材料的先锋艺术又出现了。这是一种大胆,带有暴力美学特征的艺术方式。

陈连富的身体研究被夹在了中间,似乎显得不够前卫。

如何看待陈连富?

陈连富作品的意义需要正视。他所研究的这个环节恰好是被历史一次次遗弃,而从艺术史,文化史的角度看,又不应该被遗漏的环节。

陈连富作品的意义在于对身体的发现,他让人们发现了中国的身体。

他的雕塑展现的是一种中国的人体美。这个工作过去我们一直没有做到位,做到家。而陈连富则一直坚持在做。在艺术史上,我们看到了无数优美的西方女人体;那么,站在中国体质人类学的角度看,有那些中国女人的身体可堪与之比肩呢?

往深处说,这是一个未完成的现代性。在人体的问题上,中国还需要启蒙,还需要

解放,还需要坦然面对身体的从容心态,还需要把身体真正作为审美对象的气度和宽容。人的身体既不淫秽下流,也不肮脏龌龊。对待人的身体的态度,在某种意义上,是一个社会进步和开放程度的标尺,也是一个社会现代性的发展尺度。在这个问题上,中国还有很长的路要走。

陈连富没有简单地重复老一辈人的工作,他的女人体具有明显的当代趣味和眼光。

纵观中国仅有的一些女人体雕塑,过去学院式的创作比较多地停留在结构、比例、体量的层面。在那里,人们可以看到了很多正确的的女人体,但是很少看到鲜活的,生动的,性感的女人体。这当然是由雕塑家的身体观念所决定的。

陈连富的塑造女人体的时候,具有一种直率、坦荡的特点。它的人体细腻,性感,富于肉体的诱惑性和触摸感。他丝毫不掩饰对塑造对象的那种欣赏和赞美的态度。他的女人体,抛弃了那些空洞的,伪善的关于女性美的教条,直逼视觉的真实。显然,他更愿意将女人还原为女人,将身体还原为身体,将性感还原为性感。

发现身体,发现感性,发现东方式的温润和委婉,这一切都渗透了雕塑家个人的情感态度。当他带着自己的身体观观察对象的时候,他不是概念地塑造人体,而是让作品还原为一种真实:既是视觉的真实,又是他面对中国女性,在中国女性的身体表现中捕捉东方神韵时的那种感觉上的真实。这种身体的发现使他的人体作品成为当代中国雕塑中为数不多的成功个案。

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